Specific disciplines that a new leader must focus on are Empowerment, French and Raven’s Sources of Individual Power, and utilization of an individual’s Emotional Intelligence. Empowerment is the formation of an organizational climate that releases the knowledge, experience, and motivation within individuals (Blanchard, 2010). By utilizing empowerment, a leader can unleash power in people, including their knowledge, experience, and inspiration, and focus that power on attaining positive outcomes for the organization. Empowerment mostly requires a change in attitude within the leader. They need to take a leap of faith and fight the urge to remain in their old habits and traditions. However, once you empower a follower, you are releasing their will to learn new concepts, their will to work hard, and their abilities become focused upon accomplishing these and other additional goals. Empowerment is essential for the future because it calls for leaders to be authentic and demonstrate to their followers that they can constantly learn new concepts, new ways of achieving goals, and become future leaders themselves.
French and Raven’s Sources of Individual Power encompass five sources of power: legitimate power, reward power, coercive power, expert power, and referent power. Legitimate, reward, and coercive are all position powers. Within most cases, threatening punishment or offering rewards is another manner in which can further convince reluctant subordinates. Managers and executives generally hold all three sources of these powers (Nahavandi, 2012). If the organization decides so, these powers are relinquished by the organization therefore stripping the power holder of all their control. The final two sources of power, expert, and referent, are based upon the person and not the organization. Expert power derives from education, knowledge, expertise, and success. Referent power derives from being liked and respected thereby having the influence to others. This individual’s power originates from being a role model for others, which brings respect and friendship. As a result, followers will respond with commitment and acceptance (Nahavandi, 2012). The use of French and Raven’s Individual Sources of Power because it can establish to followers whether a leader is authentic or charismatic. For example, Referent power may be viewed as being influential because a leader is charismatic and not authentic. If a follower submits to a leader it is because the follower identifies with the leader’s personal qualities. Therefore, referent power and the attribution of charisma results (Kudisch, Poteet, Dobbins, Rush, & Russell, 1995).
Employing one’s emotional intelligence necessitates a leader to use their intellect to confront the types of abilities and characteristics that people use to solve conceivable daily challenges. It is this concrete intelligence that leaders need to use to know a specific leadership style is best suited, for whom, and why. Having a high emotional intelligence quotient requires remaining in touch with your emotions and having constructive self-control over your moods and feelings as well as staying motivated and focused when facing obstacles. It is also important to have the proficiencies to calm oneself when angry or upset and remain balanced. Reading the emotions of others, feeling empathy for them, and being able to put themselves into their place are all also part of having a high emotional intelligence quotient. The best depiction of exhibiting and comprehending emotional intelligence is individuals with this type of intelligence can either alter their behavior to adapt to the environment or find a new one in which to succeed (Nahavandi, 2012). An effective, successful leader of the future is able to employ the use of emotional intelligence into his/hers leadership style in order to gain and retain followers.
The lessons that past leadership lessons have taught us should be those of ethics and corruption. Future leaders need a call for greater ethics and less corruption. The nature of leading, whether it is in a business organization or a social environment, may require disregarding norms and the possible consequences of violating them (Nahavandi, 2012). Leaders are expected to make changes. Disregarding rules and ethics may be one of the only ways that leaders can implement these changes, however, do have a destructive side.
Authentic and Positive leadership styles are examples of what types of leadership the current and next generation will be looking for. Authentic leadership is about openness, transparency, and acting like oneself. The key to authentic leadership is to understand your strengths and weaknesses and improving upon them as often as possible. Authentic leaders are individuals who know themselves well and remain true to their values and principles (Nahavandi, 2012). Practitioners of authentic leadership should practice concrete values, connect with their followers, understand their own devotion, and establish self- discipline. Some research has shown that the awareness of authentic leadership is related to employee satisfaction (Nahavandi, 2012). It is this awareness within workplaces and employee satisfaction that will keep the current and the next generation happy, inspired, motivated, and working towards new and better strategies.
Positive leadership is rooted in positive psychology and positive organizational behavior. It focuses on what is right, human strengths, and the things that make life worthwhile. POB and positive leadership both emphasize individual strengths and helping people achieve their highest potential and what some researchers refer to as psychological capital, which includes confidence/ self-confidence, hope, optimism, and resilience (Nahavandi, 2012). Positive leadership includes being optimistic, focusing on strengths, inspiring positive deviance, creating a positive environment, having positive communications, sustaining positive relationships, and dealing with the negative quickly (Nahavandi, 2012). Positive leaders also do have to some extent of authenticity. Positive leadership offers a renewed perspective in the sense that the focus is on how a leader thinks and not on what he/ she is, such as authentic or charismatic. Positive leadership has a cognitive approach, which emphasizes the perspective leaders choose to take as well as how they analyze and interpret the situation, and how these processes determine their behavior. This is due to its in psychology (Nahavandi, 2012). Positive leadership can put forth a positive attitude daily and accentuate happiness and contentment in the workplace.
The future generational workforce may require mentoring before stepping into a leadership role. Aside from the knowledge of how an organization runs, there also needs to be an understanding of what makes individuals in different generations tick and what is going to be most effective in terms of leading the various generations (Houlihan, 2008). It will be important in the mentoring process to review people skills and not just business processes because it will be necessary to bridge the gap between and older and younger generations. It should help new leaders to better understand their values. New generations will want results quickly and will rely heavily on technology and multitasking. New generations will need to work on building trust. They need to empower the older employee by complimenting them on their experience and knowledge. Young leaders need to be open instead of acting aggressive or demanding. New generations are also family oriented and maintain a high value on work-life balance. Due to this, they like to have the job done and leave the office on time. New generations will look for the quickest method to do something and utilize it. Retention could be an issue because older employees could leave, believing that the younger ones do not know how to lead. The younger ones could leave because they do not feel taken seriously. A retention program is important because it will keep the expertise within the organization and have future leaders. When the focus is on employing strengths it becomes possible for the organization to successfully direct the upcoming leadership shift (Houlihan, 2008).
Blanchard, K. (2010). Leading At a Higher Level. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Blanchard Management Corporation.
Houlihan, A. (2008). When Gen-X is in Charge. Supervision, 69(4), 11-13. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Kudisch, J. D., Poteet, M. L., Dobbins, G. H., Rush, M. C., & Russell, J. A. (1995). Expert Power, Referent Power, and Charisma: Toward the Resolution of a Theoretical Debate. Journal of Business & Psychology, 10(2), 177-195. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Nahavandi, A. (2012). The Art and Science of Leadership. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.